# Stein, Grover, & Henningsen (1996)

*Building Student Capacity for Mathematical Thinking and Reasoning: An Analysis of Mathematical Tasks Used in Reform Classrooms*

The article *Building Student Capacity for Mathematical Thinking and Reasoning: An Analysis of Mathematical Tasks Used in Reform Classrooms* was written by Mary Kay Stein, Barbara Grover, and Marjorie Henningsen and published in the American Educational Research Journal in 1996. The article is available from Sage Publications at http://aer.sagepub.com/content/33/2/455.

## Abstract

This article focuses on mathematical tasks as important vehicles for building student capacity for mathematical thinking and reasoning. A stratified random sample of 144 mathematical tasks used during reform-oriented instruction was analyzed in terms of (a) task features (number of solution strategies, number and kind of representations, and communication requirements) and (b) cognitive demands (e.g., memorization, the use of procedures with [and without] connections to concepts, the "doing of mathematics"). The findings suggest that teachers were selecting and setting up the kinds of tasks that reformers argue should lead to the development of students' thinking capacities. During task implementation, the task features tended to remain consistent with how they were set up, but the cognitive demands of high-level tasks had a tendency to decline. The ways in which high-level tasks declined as well as factors associated with task changes from the set-up to implementation phase were explored.

## Outline of Article Headings

- Conceptual Framework
- Mathematical Tasks
- Task Set Up and Implementation

- Methodology
- Data Sources
- Sampling Procedure
- Coding
- Analysis Procedures

- Results
- Description of Mathematical Tasks
- Task Set Up
- Task Implementation
- Factors Associated With How High-Level Tasks Were Implemented

- Discussion
- Instruction in Project Classrooms: Implications for Reform
- Implications for Research

## About

### Mendeley

### APA

Stein, M. K., Grover, B. W., & Henningsen, M. A. (1996). Building student capacity for mathematical thinking and reasoning: An analysis of mathematical tasks used in reform classrooms. American Educational Research Journal, 33(2), 455–488. doi:10.3102/00028312033002455

### BibTeX

@article{Stein1996, author = {Stein, Mary Kay and Grover, Barbara W. and Henningsen, Marjorie A.}, doi = {10.3102/00028312033002455}, journal = {American Educational Research Journal}, number = {2}, pages = {455--488}, title = {{Building student capacity for mathematical thinking and reasoning: An analysis of mathematical tasks used in reform classrooms}}, url = {http://aer.sagepub.com/content/33/2/455.short}, volume = {33}, year = {1996} }