Rasmussen & Marrongelle (2006)

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Pedagogical Content Tools: Integrating Student Reasoning and Mathematics Instruction


Teaching in a manner consistent with reform recommendations is a challenging and often overwhelming task. Part of this challenge involves using students' thinking and understanding as a basis for the development of mathematical ideas (cf. NCTM, 2000). The purpose of this article is to address this challenge by developing the notion of pedagogical content tool. A pedagogical content tool is a device such as a graph, diagram, equation, or verbal statement that a teacher intentionally uses to connect to student thinking while moving the mathematical agenda forward. We tender two examples of pedagogical content tools: Transformational record and generative alternative. These two pedagogical content tools are put forth as instructional counterparts to the Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) design heuristics of emergent models and guided reinvention, respectively. We illustrate the pedagogical content tools of transformational record and generative alternative by drawing on examples from two classroom teaching experiments in undergraduate differential equations.

Outline of Headings

  • Theoretical Background
  • Method
  • Transformational Record
    • Example from Classroom A
    • Example from Classroom B
  • Generative Alternatives
    • Example from Classroom A
      • Phases 1 and 2: Generating predictions
      • Phase 3: Formulating a rate of change equation
    • Example from Classroom B
  • Conclusion


Rasmussen, C. L., & Marrongelle, K. (2006). Pedagogical content tools: Integrating student reasoning and mathematics in instruction. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 37(5), 388.
author = {Rasmussen, Chris L. and Marrongelle, Karen},
journal = {Journal for Research in Mathematics Education},
number = {5},
pages = {388},
title = {{Pedagogical content tools: Integrating student reasoning and mathematics in instruction}},
url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/30034860},
volume = {37},
year = {2006}