Hiebert & Grouws (2007)

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The Effects of Classroom Mathematics Teaching on Students' Learning

Outline of Headings

  • Teaching Matters...But How Is Not Easy to Document
    • A Claim That Appears Obvious is Strikingly Difficult to Specify
    • Useful Theories of Teaching Are in Short Supply
      • Challenge 1: Different Teaching Methods Might Be Effective for Different Learning Goals
      • Challenge 2: Teaching is a System of Interacting Features
      • Challenge 3: The Influence of Mediating Variables
    • Documenting the Effects of Teaching on Learning is Methodologically Difficult
      • Accounting for Relevant Factors
      • Creating Appropriate Measures
    • Teaching Often Gets Interpreted as Teachers
    • Despite the Difficulties, Research-Based Claims Are Emerging
  • Opportunity to Learn: Still the Key Enabling Condition
  • Two Patterns: Teaching for Skill Efficiency and Teaching for Conceptual Understanding
    • Becoming Efficient in Executing Skills
    • Developing Conceptual Understanding
    • Teaching That Promotes Conceptual Development: Two Key Features
      • Feature 1: Teachers and Students Attend Explicitly to Concepts
      • Feature 2: Students Struggle with Important Mathematics
      • Teaching Features that Promote Conceptual Understanding also Promote Skill Fluency
      • Summary
    • Absence of Features That Support Conceptual Development from U.S. Mathematics Teaching
  • Future Directions for Research That Connects Teaching and Learning
    • Be Explicit About Learning Goals
    • Build and Use Theories
    • Set Realistic Expectations for What a Knowledge Base Can Do
    • Account for the Costs and Benefits of Different Research Approaches
    • Comparing the Effects of Different Instructional Methods
    • Correlating Features of Teaching with Students' Learning
    • Balancing the Benefits of Small-Scale Qualitative Studies and Large-Scale Quantitative Studies
  • Final Thoughts


Hiebert, J., & Grouws, D. A. (2007). The effects of classroom mathematics teaching on students' learning. In F. K. Lester (Ed.), Second handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning (pp. 371–404). Charlotte, NC: Information Age.
address = {Charlotte, NC},
author = {Hiebert, James and Grouws, Douglas A.},
booktitle = {Second handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning},
chapter = {9},
editor = {Lester, Frank K.},
pages = {371--404},
publisher = {Information Age},
title = {{The effects of classroom mathematics teaching on students' learning}},
year = {2007}